Introduction to Structured Query Language

Introduction to Structured Query Language

SQL is a database access, nonprocedural language. Users describe in SQL what they want done, and the SQL language compiler automatically generates a procedure to navigate the database and perform the desired task.

IBM Research developed and defined SQL, and ANSI/ISO has refined SQL as the standard language for relational database management systems.The minimal conformance level for SQL-99 is known as Core. Core SQL-99 is a superset of
SQL-92 Entry Level specification. Oracle9i is broadly compatible with the SQL-99 Core specification.

Oracle SQL includes many extensions to the ANSI/ISO standard SQL language, and Oracle tools and applications provide additional statements. The Oracle tools SQL*Plus and Oracle Enterprise Manager allow you to execute any ANSI/ISO standard SQL statement against an Oracle database, as well as additional statements or functions that are available for those tools.

Oracle SQLJ allows applications programmers to embed static SQL operations in Java code in a way that is compatible with the Java design philosophy. A SQLJ program is a Java program containing embedded static SQL statements that comply with the ANSI-standard SQLJ Language Reference syntax.

Although some Oracle tools and applications simplify or mask SQL use, all database operations are performed using SQL. Any other data access method circumvents the security built into Oracle and potentially compromise data security and integrity.

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